Orange or sweet orange is the fruit of citrus species. The scientific name of orange is Citrus reticulate. It is a hybrid between pomelo and mandarin. It is one of the most cultivated fruits in the world. Today we will show a total guidelines of orange tree planting process. Orange can be eaten fresh or processed for its juice or sweet flavor. Orange is famous for its test and also for its nutritional value. The table below contains nutrients amount in every 100 gm of orange:
|Nutrients||Amount (per 100gm)||Nutrients||Amount (per 100gm)|
|Fiber||2.4g||Trans fat||0 g|
Major Orange Tree Planting Countries:
There are many countries whice countries cultivate oranges. Major Orange growing countries are Brazil, USA, China, Spain, Mexico, Egypt, Italy Iran, and Indonesia.
The topmost citrus varieties cultivated for commercial purpose are mandarin, acid lime, and sweet orange. Among them, sweet orange is the popular variety which is eaten more by the people.
Orange grows well in tropical and subtropical climate having warm to hot summer and mild winters. It requires moderate temperature ranges from 15.5° C to 29° C and also needs a considerable amount of sunshine and water.
Orange grows well in sandy loam or alluvium soil to clay loam or acidic soil. It grows well in light soils with good drainage properties. The ideal pH range for Orange cultivation is considered from 5.5 to 7.5.
You can produce saplings by directly seeds or grafting. But grafting is more fruitful for high yields than seeds because seeds produce fruits that may be different from its parent. So grafting is more beneficial in commercial farming of Orange.
You can follow the rectangular, square, quincunx, triangular, and hexagonal system in the plain land and contour system in hilly areas for implanting saplings. Early to mid-spring is the perfect time for citrus plating.
Before 15-20 days of planting of the seedlings make a pit of 1×1×1 meter for large and medium plant and 60×60×60 cm for a small plant with a spacing of 4.5 meters to 6 meters. Mix 10 kg of cow dung, 200 grams of Urea, 200 grams of TSP, 200 grams of MOP, and 500 grams of lime with the soil in every hole.
After 10-15 days of application of fertilizer in the hole, implant seedlings directly in the middle of the hole. After planting tie the seedling with a stick.
Irrigation depends on many factors such as plant age, agro-climatic condition, and soil type. Give irrigation at a week in the summer season and at 10 days from monsoon to winter. A fully grown orange plant needs minimum 20 mm water in a particular year. Make sure that, the drainage system is well managed and there is no water logging in the rainy season.
Orange Tree Planting Fertilization:
The amount of fertilizer per year is given below:
|Age of Plant||Nitrogen||Phosphorus||Potassium|
You can apply Diuron, Monuron, and Simazine to control weeds. You can also arrange mulch for trees by spreading dry leaves, hay, and straw in the garden for mulching but leave some space around the tree which will prevent weeds growing and also holds soil moisture.
Training and Pruning:
In order to improve fruit quality and yield, you can improve aeration and increase light through the canopy. Cut the disease or pest affected branches or which are in the wrong position of the trees. The two basic types of pruning cut are heading back and thinning. Heading back will promote the growth of lower buds and branching and Thinning removes the entire branch, to reduce the total number of the side shoots
Inter-cultivation in Orange Farming:
You can grow leguminous crops like groundnut, cowpeas, French bean, peas, soybean, gram etc with the citrus orchards.
Orange Tree Planting Pest Management:
Aphids: The aphids attack the tree by sucking the sap out of the leaves, as a result, it becomes yellow and curled. Spray on the leaves with Bug Buster or insecticidal soap to control this pest.
Citrus Whitefly: The citrus Whitefly sucks the sap from the leaves. As a result, the leaves of the trees become curled and appear to be covered with a sticky, sooty mold substance.
Orangedog Caterpillar: The caterpillar attacks orange trees and eats the tree’s leaves. To control this caterpillar, spray the tree with Garden Insect Spray with Spinosad and physically remove and destroy it by hand.
Citrus Canker: Citrus canker is a highly contagious bacterial infection of citrus trees and causes yellow halo-like lesions or scabs on the fruit, leaves, and twigs of citrus trees. Spray Liquid Copper Fungicide to prevent this disease.
Melanose: It is a fungal infection of young citrus fruit. Use Liquid Copper Fungicide as a treatment for this disease.
Sooty Mold: Sooty mold is a fungus, which causes the blackening of the leaves of the citrus tree. Spray the trees with Liquid Copper Fungicide to prevent this disease.
Citrus fruits may take 6 to 8 months to ripen depending on the climate. The best indicator of ripeness is taste and color. Harvest the fruit by cutting them off with pruning shears or by pulling the fruit stalk from the tree. You can store undamaged oranges for several weeks at a cool temperature.
The mature tree produces 300 to 400 fruits per year. Older trees can produce 1000 to 1500 fruits. A tree usually produces fruit for 50 to 70 years.
Orange is easy to cultivate and there is a great demand for it the world. As the orange tree is a perennial tree you can take orange cultivation as your permanent profession. Besides, you can also cultivate orange as a part-time job.